Law of Similarity

The law of similarity has been observed since ancient times, but the first to study and clearly enunciate it was Hippocrates. He explained in his writing that there are two completely opposite ways to face diseases: the way of opposites and that of the similar, destroying the curative use of the toxic. Any substance that in its experiment on healthy subjects has caused the appearance of a given complex symptoms will be able to influence positively a similar set of symptoms, whatever its origin, producing an increase in defense mechanisms.

Hippocrates observed that medicine approaches treatment one of two ways, depending on objective observation of the signs of illness: that of the contrary, or “contraria contrariis curentur” and, that of the similar, “similia similibus curentur”. Both are used as a motto of the ruling forces of nature, “Vis medicatrix naturae”.
Hippocrates was the first to abandon mythological and pre-scientific concepts, introducing systematic observation and methodology to medicine, favoring the inductive method which parsed the particular to the general, from effects to causes, and from concrete facts to theoretical principles, challenging all the speculative theories.

In his text, “Places in Man” he introduces this approach, differentiating from that of opposites and affirming the need to individualize treatment, devising a plan of therapy in response to those observations: “We would cure sometimes with the contraries, according to the nature and the origin of the disease. Sometimes with the similarity, again according to the nature and origin of the disease.” And also affirm, “Most parts of diseases are curable with the same cause that they have procured,” and, “The disease is produced from the similarity and through the similarities they produce, it can bring the sick back to health from the sickness.” So strangury treatment, which did not exist before, came into existence now, as the cough like strangulate, is caused by the same things.

However, in his book there are also traces of the pre-Hippocratic theories. Regardless, it’s evident in his writing that he had a remarkable capacity for observation of all natural phenomena.

Such premises make us clearly understand why, for example, in the treatment of freezing, we can use two opposite therapeutic techniques: the identical approach of rubbing the frozen body part with ice, or the opposite by applying heat. Similarly, in treatment of overheating, we can apply heat or cold. Both techniques are effective (all people who live in snow know and apply these techniques, and know that a hot drink or shower is a very effective means to treat overheating). But there is a fundamental difference between the two methods: the use of the contrary sees the body take such action passively, and the use of similarity creates an active reaction that persists well beyond the moment of the actual stimulus, and leads to significantly faster healing.

Obviously this reactivity of the body doesn’t happen only in thermal type stimulations; the reactive model is useful with all substances presented in nature, that is, every substance is capable of causing both toxic and perturbing effects, and both reactive and curative effects. But, while in the cold and heat example, we used the identical principle, in Homeopathy we use the substance that can induce in the body of healthy subjects symptoms most similar to those appearing in the diseases that we want to cure.

For what reason? The logic of the law of similarity is strict and clear: If the symptoms, as experience shows, are a sign of positive reaction in the body, the administration of substances that produce similar reactive symptoms will determine a strong acceleration towards healing.

The law of similarity is often used empirically, perhaps even unconsciously. For example, we can quote some healing practices used by the “curandero,” real wizards of the indigenous Mexicans. They were, in fact, using various types of herbs, in many cases exploiting the capacity of “anti,” but in others with the criteria of similarity.

Curiously, the source for these cases is the magazine Veterinary Science, no. 6 of November-December, 1987.

Reading the statement of the curators is almost laughable when it comes to showing obvious concerns about contradictions of certain cited phenomenon. Let’s read verbatim: “It’s not all clear. There are apparently contradictions between the known specific activities of some plants and the use made of it by the natives. For example “the Agave cupreata” is used as an antidote to snake poison, while from the performed study, it should contrarily increase the rate of absorption and enhance its activity to some poisons. The “Crotone dragon” that contains different irritant substances, is used instead with success as anti-diarrhea and anti-keratotic. The “Rose cabbage” is given a mild laxative action. On the contrary, containing certain proportion of tannin, it would be more logical to assume that it can be equipped with an astringent action (petals are used in infusion). The “Sida Acuta” traditionally used as anti-diarrhea contains alkaloid that should cause diarrhea.

It’s obvious that the writers of the article don’t understand Homeopathy. They cannot express more concern about the facts mentioned, while they are nothing more than a perfect application of the principle of similarity.

However, for such empirical applications, two fundamental principles are missing – those of dilution and succession. And we can’t talk about homeopathy without simply considering its effects as being due to herbal medicine.

By doing so, however, might there be a risk to seriously worsen the disturbed patient? Going back to the freezing example, if we continue to rub with ice for an indefinite time, we will get the opposite result of what we want, thereby delivering the subject to the so-called “white death”. Stimulations by way of similarity have to be minimal and measured, and for that reason, homeopathic substances are used in infinitesimal doses. Hahnemann used the technique of progressive dilution to avoid worsening of patients.
This technique has remained unchanged since then.

It is important to consider the law of similarity in determining a course of treatment, with awareness of both advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches, and to design treatments in such a way that best serves the patient.

The Homeopathy Aggravation

Homeopathy Aggravation: the reaction

In this chapter we will primarily analyze the reaction of aggravation. Understanding the aggravation phenomenon is facilitated from the series of considerations that follow, and concerns the way the body reacts when faced with a morbid stimulus.

Administration of a homeopathic remedy chosen according to the law of similarity may cause any of the following reactions in the body:

– an improved picture

– a worsening picture

– appearance of new symptoms

– re-appearance of old symptoms

– no response

In the chapter dedicated to health, disease and healing, we saw how taking the correct approach to a disease is fundamental to success in medical treatment, and that this can be derived exclusively from an understanding of the body’s defense mechanism. Recognizing that symptoms presenting during the evolution of a disease progression is not actually an expression of the disease, but on the contrary, the best possible response of the body to it, is an indispensable key to this understanding.

In fact, if we consider symptoms as not an expression of the disease but of the body’s reaction to the disease, it becomes easy to understand the action mechanism in the law of similarity. As stated in the chapter dedicated to that law, that concept is that a substance in its pathogenesis causes a body reaction, and a determined procession of symptoms will be able to positively influence a similar symptomatic picture, whatever its origin, as it will produce an increase in defense mechanisms in its place.

The highlight of this reality becomes easy to explain even with the apparent strangeness of the fact that a homeopathic substance can influence a morbid picture supported by a virus, bacteria or toxic and poisonous substance, without possessing any kind of direct or specific action against them. In fact, the body sophisticated product of a long evolution in the environment of numerous interaction systems among its various components it uses to maintain the real state of homeostatic, there are fundamentally two systems: the internal, or alarm system, and the external, or defense system.

External alarms are built from that wealth of sensory information, genetically printed or acquired through experience, and teach their own parents, allowing us to recognize and face any possible danger as well. Internal alarms are principally represented by painful stimulus, vigilant and irreplaceable sentinel that watch over the basic alert functions, and play the role of limiting or even completely preventing normal motor activity until the disease is gone. The defense system is instead built from all these structures; from the immune system to the nervous system, they intervene against any type of external aggression. These two systems demonstrate their action through multiple channels, but in the end, symptoms combine with each other in many different ways depending on the morbid stimulus and the real individual reactivity.

To simplify comprehension of such mechanisms, imagine a nation protected by their armed forces, and equate the various armed corps and their headquarters as the body defenses, regulated by the central nervous system. Facing an enemy attack will be naturally defended by a frontal defense (represented by the skin, mucous and the excretory systems). They put in place those measures (that is, the symptoms) permitting the total elimination of the enemy as far as possible and his expulsion with the destroyed structures in the battle. Such symptomatic measures are represented by different draining symptoms (vomit, diarrhea, transpiration, drooling and others).

Among other important parameters are the adenoids and tonsils, a real bulwark against an enemy attempt to invade the territory using major communication roads and sliding (circulatory and lymphatic systems). At this point, we reflect on what can be the actual result of surgical removal of the cited structures; it would be as if central command is facing an attack that is causing death and destruction in one of the most important border posts, and instead of sending reinforcements and munitions, he decided to make such stronghold for not having further lost in site.

It is obvious that the immediate result of such a move would be the death of those regional problems, but with the logical consequence of finding the final, after short time to fight the enemy in the heart of the country, altogether with the risks. In addition to “blitzkrieg” lightning war, that can bring total defeat of the invasion or the invader. There is, of course, another possibility – that of the country being invaded by massive forces but not dominant over those defenses, therefore creating a trench war, with nuclei invaders nested in different strategic points of the territory, where continuously or periodically violent attacks or simple disturbance actions are thrown. This is chronic disease, with its periodic aggravations and expression of a stalled situation between the body and the disease, with symptoms representing more than ever the vital processes of maintenance of such a precarious balance.

Going back to the example of tonsils, when the invader is able to take over of such structure and to settle (possible chronic tonsil rather than possible serious damages to primary structure like the heart, kidneys or joints), there is objective situation of our defense structure, neuralgic at the bay because of the flow channels which has become all the effects of enemy territory. So, while being clear that the primary purpose will always be regaining our position, keeping an eye on other invasions in the future can sometimes be necessary. In the trench wars that destroy even vital bulwark in order to avoid continuous infiltration of enemy elements in all the territory, with the consequences that can arise.

Even in total victory (with resolution of the problem at all levels with tonsillectomy), it’s reasonable to expect possible, if not probable, serious trouble in case of future invasions in any provenance; these invaders will soon have the way smoothed from the definitely irreparable absence of this defense line and they have to be faced in the main street of the main city. Fortunately, our body possesses exceptional defense mechanisms, and even this type of situation normally allows for effective dealing with any type of invader. In light of this reality, it is certainly comforting to realize that they were not trained to treat our body, but to do everything to impede outstanding defense mechanisms.

Hence, the big opportunity that homeopathy offers to us is that it gives powerful help to the body, according to natural laws. In summary of how many display we propose this mathematical model: facing an aggressor, the body put in action the army perimeters 1, 8, 17, 37, 99,” and evaluated the most suitable ones (for example vomit, nasal discharge, perspiration, diarrhea and fever). If we want to provide help to the body, we have to give it a remedy independent from the causes, it stimulated in its pathogens, the same response channel. In more serious cases with deeper levels of invasion, both perimeters and internal defense armies are put into action (1, 10, 18, 37, 79) vomiting, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea and flatulence, homeopathic remedy will always be useful to have these prominent symptoms in its pathogens.

The body defenses to any act of invasion won’t be so different from the different possible combinations of intervention of different defense departments that will have visible manifestations that we call symptoms. Even including the absurd conceptual of “anti” therapy, such therapies are justified in cases where there are no alternatives equally ready and available, and there is a serious life and death situation because of a highly altered homeostasis of the subject. In this case, the antibiotic remains a fundamental therapy, and is irreplaceable because the damages that may result from its use are clearly insignificant compared to the risk of death of the subject; insignificant, but not to be underestimated. In fact, as recent studies showed, beyond the primary and secondary toxic effects coming from molecular activity, there is a process of the connective tissue of catabolites and waste from different origins, caused by the inhibitory drug action, that actually prevents their expulsion through the excretory organs.

The action of the molecule “anti” is ultimately like “bills of exchange,” of the “promissory” that is best used just when it’s with the water in the throat, without more energy stocks. However, it’s possible to remove such accumulation of harmful worms even at different times, when the body has had time to recharge its own batteries, but finding the right remedy certainly is never easy or simple.
Until now, our discussion has only sought to clarify the mechanism of body reaction and how it can then justify the aggravation phenomenon.

Homeopathy and Poultry Farming

Even the field of poultry lends itself very well to homeopathic therapies. There are numerous experiences both clinical and experimental that highlight how homeopathic treatments obtain good therapeutic and preventative results, while simultaneously lowering the costs of intervention.

Intervention schemes take into consideration the peculiarity of each farm and keep under control the most fearsome diseases: from the summer heatstroke to colibacilosis , from respiratory problems to parasites, from the fragility of the hens’ hull to the diseases of turkeys support systems.

One of the most interesting results put into relief the homeopathic treatment schemes with regards to the organoleptic characteristics of the treated subjects: these are almost constantly higher than those subjects treated traditionally, and the flavor, the consistency, the color and the fragrance of the chickens and turkeys bred with homeopathic criteria are recognizable at first glance. We can guarantee that the staff at the slaughterhouse will easily recognize the subjects treated homeopathically. Pending objective criteria which can encode unambiguously and correct such improvements, there will be anyway disinterested customer judgements to confirm the validity.

However, there are very difficult obstacles to overcome. First of all, the high number of variables existing in the poultry field: seasonal problems, weather, logistics, breed, cyclical, nutrition, and the phenomenon of diseases continuously modifying. These determine such a maze of possible combinations that it prevents the use of a standardized treatment model.

It’s also necessary to keep in mind that intensive farming is absolutely antithetical to natural biological laws. The higher a concentration of animals in a confined space, the more nature answers by way of natural selection in the form of diseases. The more medicine we administer to curb certain mass diseases, the more nature will process increasingly acute forms of diseases to “bring back the order”. It’s therefore conceivable, that the future theater of intensive farming will consist of increasingly difficult fights between medicine and powerful and devastating diseases. In this depressing picture, a form of therapy which aims to enhance natural defense mechanisms, like homeopathy, will obviously find a prominent position.

The poultry sector, due to their large number of subjects, are in a position to lend their support to the experimental work. The only way to afford homeopathy is to acquire scientific dignity.

Homeopathy and zoological gardens

Contribution to therapeutic approach of homeopathic type in the general problematics of a zoological gardens.

Among many applicative possibility of homeopathy, we certainly can’t neglect those concerning the prevention and the resolution of the various sanitary problems that we can present in a zoological garden.

There are numerous objective motivations that make the use of the homeopathic medicine particularly interesting in that very particular fact that is represented by a zoo.

The personal experience matured in the last years in a zoo of the North Italy has contributed to strengthen the belief that the colleagues who apply homeopathy have all the credentials to be able to become positive protagonists in the scope of such structure in the near future.

It’s obvious that the following results on the most desperate animal species must become a strong incentive to cure homeopathically in our clinics, as well as dogs and cats also all the “different” animals that may arrive from the snakes to crickets, from guinea pigs to canaries

The motivation that they make particularly indicate the application of homeopathy in a zoological garden can be summarized as follows:


Objective shortcomings of the zoological sciences in the knowledge of the most intimate mechanism of physiological and ethological type of so many animal species: despite being interested in the industry, a large number of engineers and enthusiasts, is practically Utopian thinking that they may have been developed in-depth knowledge as those accumulated throughout history on pets more widespread;


The homeopathy while recognizing the fundamental importance of an in-depth knowledge of all the physiological and pathological phenomenon of every single species, and while hoping a constant depth, it stands as a therapeutic form that it allows to be, in certain sense, “ignorant”, as the particular mechanism of homeopathic remedy action allows act of imitating reactive symptoms set in motion by the body, and it prevents the cause of damages where in a given framework, we exchange for pathological, for our own ignorance, absolutely physiological manifestations.


Consequential objective difficulty also from the most serious professional part of an in-depth knowledge of hundreds animal species diseases in the zoo: also a true and real specialist in exotic species certainly can’t present himself as a credible “spin doctor” who is able to cope with various diseases and often a little or nothing known to present themselves. It’s indeed impractical, in the actual reality think of veterinaries can or must specialize on a single species to be able to deal with the real knowledge of the reason of all possible diseases.


The homeopath, while naturally being in the same shortage situation, he exploits a peculiar character of the homeopathy that permits him to find himself in an actual benefit condition: one of its basic principles is to imitate, strengthen and modulate, second the similarity law, the mechanisms put in place from the nature to cope with the most varied forms of diseases. In practice you need to be able to “read” correctly the reaction mechanisms, which are nothing but the symptoms present in the process of any pathological frame, to be able to choose an effective and suitable homeopathy remedy to the case.


The existence of great number of diseases declared incurable or incurable with classical medicine: the available molecules available from the official pharmacopoeia absolutely show unable to treat and cure the vast majority of the existing chronic diseases.


The homeopathy proves both conceptually and practically able to a good care the chronical diseases and it’s not an uncommon assist of final healing from incurable diagnosed diseases also through the laboratory exams.

The homeopathy doesn’t do miracles but it’s the body, although infrequently, it’s able of doing that: because the homeopathy remedy simply acts amplifying the healing capacity of the body and restoring the potential energies, wonder why it seems to be a miraculous healing? The diseases constantly depend on an imbalance energy, and our homeopathy intervention will significantly increase the self-healing capacity of body.

Those who feel the aggrieved dignity of the real doctor in hear say that the best way to do medicine maybe is to humbly imitate the defense mechanism of the body, they will be better to go re-read the gigantic tomes, even very recently, they describe the hundreds and hundreds of the existing diseases, observing the offered therapies: where it’s not expressively declared the in-curability, it’s almost constantly proposed the anti-inflammatory, the real breakdown of the medicine.


Particular incidence of behavioral type problem in animals forced to in captivity: the life conditions to which they must adapt the various animal species, they create inexorable assumption to the diseases development of psychic, psychosomatic, also physiologic type. While appreciating and respecting the commendable efforts of many zoos to reduce to the minimum the negative consequences coming from the eradication from the real natural environment of different animal species, they persist numerous fatality factors ( from difficult to respect the vital minimum space to overcrowding, from the difficulty to adjust to different climate from the original one, to the inevitable nostalgia of the original place) determining deep imbalances which open inevitably in the various diseases.


While the classical medicine has practically no means to cope with various behavioral problems type that happen with extreme frequency in the zoo (I don’t think it can be considered a valid mean, if it’s not in particular case, the use of the psych pharmacy), the homeopathy remedy, working at the internal body level which means also at the psyche level, it often proves to be very effective in the behavioral problems treatment. While acknowledging that many recognized causes of behavioral pathologies almost impossible to remove, it’s indisputable that a well-chosen homeopathic therapy is able to optimize, the adaptive response to a given problem, sometimes dramatically.


Difficulty to fully check the most part of the presented animals: the most effective visits are those realized in subjects’ health which by now greatly compromised. So very often with poor utility, or on anesthetized subjects or subjects treated with tranquilizers that are currently not perceiving many useful variations and spontaneous reactions for diagnoses purposes.


The homeopathic medicine very often can prevent the real difficulty, resorting to a careful attention, even from distance of a series of symptoms that absolutely turn out to be absolutely useless for a classical diagnosis, but useful to a range of homeopathic type: the aspect, the color, the consistency and the smell of excretes; the attitude and the position of the animal, his type of breath, the presence of barks, of salivation and secretions with their characteristics; swollen abdomen or less; the choice of the place where it lies during the sickness, the presence or the absence of hunger or thirst; exaggerate reactions of fear or on the contrary to indifference, the reactivity to the environmental temperature and to the weather; in a word any change from his usual behavior will provide very useful data to the research of the most effective remedy, avoiding all the problems coming from the animal restrain in many cases.


Difficulty of the therapy management: many of the most effective therapies exist in the market which only on injectable form often determining a practical impossibility to follow them. Consequently, it is often necessary to use the medicaments principles that are different from that optimal one, but which have “the gift” to present in orally. In addition, as part of the oral medications, you need to make additional selection because the flavor of many formulations is so unpleasant that makes it impossible to use even if mixed with food. Otherwise you have to resort it to daily “chases” for administer trial to the non-dangerous animals, the medicament is directly for os. This technique causes such shocks in some sick animals to be able to completely override the benefits of any treatment.


The homeopathic remedies are all available even in liquid or granules form, and their flavor doesn’t create difficulty to the administration in the liquid drinks or solid food. This is due to the fact that the basic substance of the homeopathic remedy is diluted and dynamised: in practice, the taste of remedy is exclusively determined from the sugar vehicle, watery or hydro-alcoholic that supports the energy and the therapeutic properties of the substance base.


The traditional treatments require daily injection or multi-daily medication, with the disavantages we have previously mentioned.


Some powers of the homeopathic remedies suitable especially in chronic diseases or behavior problems, they have a very prolonged action: often as a single dose is able to set in motion the healing processes of the animal. In other cases are normally enough repetitions of the remedy randomly every 7 to 60 days.


The traditional treatments often have very high cost that can put the fragile economy of the zoo in serious problem. One of the “defects” of the modern pharmacological research is that the resort always more often than synthetic molecules of laboratory: the cost of such molecules tends to rise steadily because of the inevitably high experimental costs.


One of the advantages of homeopathic treatments is in the very low cost of the therapeutic interventions: It’s not rare to succeed to heal the animals from chronic diseases using a single dose of a remedy with the cost of 8 / 9 thousand lira.

We absolutely don’t need to wonder or be skeptical of the opposite statement that a single dose of a homeopathic remedy can obtain as result the healing of a diseases which perhaps rooted since years in the body: this is made possible from the fact that the chronic diseases are caused by a permanent deficit of energy in the body. Such deficit leads to diseases, highlighting charged to the most sensitive organs. Just an “energy medicine” will be able to restore the body balance bringing back to the healing.

Since then the disease is the inevitable consequences of the body energy deficit, it’s materially impossible to obtain satisfying results directly on the targeted organs: such fact explains perfectly the temporariness of the traditional therapy results in the chronic diseases treatments.


Lack of objective knowledge on the toxicity of various traditional medicines against many animal species: we can’t deny that certain medications are more often directly “live tested” in sick animals without being able to predict correctly the effects. Any honest professional knows he can count on the real case studies. A certain number of animals died not because of the disease but because of the side effects of the administered drugs.


The homeopathic remedy, precisely for the dilution mechanism where we have just mentioned, they don’t possess any degree of toxicity: no homeopathic remedy can cause intoxication phenomenon. This obviously doesn’t mean that with the homeopathy is not likely to cause damages: the homeopathic remedy exerts its action to energetic level and its power, if not used with necessary caution and knowledge of the fact, can be a devastating and very serious point to cause aggravation, and in certain particular cases, even the death of subjects in therapy.

It’s moreover inevitable that the obtainable positive results have downside: a positive pole must have the its negative, and naturally the homeopathy can’t derogate from such principle.

Anyway there are rules and criteria specify that allow the homeopath to have a good control of the situation and to be able to measure the risk according to the needs and his own knowledge. The homeopathy can’t and doesn’t have to be applied with improvisation, and the right application can’t disregard from a deep and prolonged study of its basic theories.

Whoever talk ironically about “fresh water” simply shows of not having some knowledge of the material, and even compared to those colleagues who, throughout Europe also in other parts of the world, since almost 200 years they apply it with satisfaction in any type of farms. Beyond any practical demonstration, it finds it very difficult to imagine hundreds or thousands of animals that convince themselves to heal for a simple placebo effect, and even hundreds of farmers willing to be duped permanently.

Those who have doubts on this form of medicine try to study it seriously: it realizes that, if there is a form of medicine based on clear and clean principles, this is the real homeopathy and it realizes how much absurd is to find judgement according to the laws of chemistry.